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The Mushahars belong to “adivasi” groups (indigenous peoples) of India but they are also amongst the most discriminated against (during the colonial period they were called “criminal tribe”). They have lived for centuries in sub-human conditions, segregated, always at the outskirts of large villages in the rural areas of North India (especially in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh). These are landless families, whose members often work as agricultural labourers for few rupees or for a handful of rice and dhal. Their abject poverty and their isolation make their access to basic services (schools and health centres) nearly inexistent. Their literacy rate is very low (from 2 to 6 %) and their health conditions dismal (mortality rates for children and women are much higher than that prevailing in rural India).